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吉林自考学位外语考试语法重点串讲

时间:2019-02-13 21:09:48   作者:吉林学位外语   来源:自考学位外语考试   阅读:1516   评论:0
内容摘要:吉林自考学位外语考试语法重点串讲
语法重点串讲
语法是三级英语统考的一个重点,它将体现在所有五个题型中,但重点将集中在以下几个方面。
  1、时态:常用的10—11      2、语态:被动语态  3、情态动词             4、虚拟语气   
  5、动词的非谓语形式三种        6、各种从句(主、宾、表、定、状、同位语从句) 7、主谓一致
  8、倒装句                      9、强调句                  10、附加疑问句
第一章 语法重点串讲      第一节 动词的时态
考试重点:一般现在时(if 从句和as soon as 从句);进行时表将来;现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别;完成时瞬间动词以及have hasbeen, havehasgone的区别;过去完成时的时间状语;将来完成时。
  一、一般现在式:
1
、表示经常发生的动作或存在的状态:常和always, usually, often ,sometimes, every day, every week的等时间状语连用。
  例:He goes to work every day. 他每天去上班。
  2、表示普遍的真理。由于是众所周知的客观事实,所以一般不用时间状语。
  例:The earth is round. 地球是圆的。
  3、有些表示心理状态或感情的动词往往用一般现在时。
  例:I don’t think you are right.我以为你错了。
  4、在时间、条件状语从句中表示将来的动作:常用的连词有as soon aswhentillif
  (1They will go home for winter vocation as soon as they ________their exams.
  A. have finished  B. finish  C. finished  D. was finishing  (答案:B)(199622题)
  (2When the mixture ______, it will give off a powerful force.
  A. will heat  B. will be heated  C. is heated  D. has heated
  (答案:C)(199259题)
  二、一般过去时:
  1、表示过去的动作或状态:常和过去时间状语连用。just now, last year, when I was 8years old等。
  例:You've already missed too many classes this term .You _____ two classes just last week.
  A. missed  B. would miss  C. had missed  D. have missed
  (答案:A。有具体的时间状语要用过去时。)(199559题)
  2used to do sth:过去常常做
  例:I used to take a walk in the morning.
  我过去是在早晨散步。(意味着现在不在早晨散步了。)
  3it is high timethat句型中,谓语动词用过去时。
  例:Don’t you think it is time you _____ smoking?
  A. give up  B. gave up  C. would give up  D. should give up
  (答案:B)(199931题)
三、一般将来时
  1willshall+原形动词:表示将来的动作或状态。
  例:He will come and help you. 他会来帮助你的。
  2be going to +动词原形:表示马上就要发生的事情或打算好要做的事。
  例:Are you going to attend the lecture? 你打算去听这个演讲吗?
  3be to +动词原形: 表示安排或计划好了的动作。
  例:The Third-Ring Road is to be open to traffic before National Day.  三环路将在国庆节前通车。
  4be about to +动词原形:表示即将发生的动作。
  5、例:The lecture is about to begin.讲座即将开始。
  6、某些表示开始、终结、往来行动的动词如:go ,come, start, arrive leave 等的现在进行时可表示将来。
  (1We are leaving for Beijing tomorrow. 我们明天动身去北京。
  (2The foreign guests are arriving in Jinan tonight. 外宾今晚到达济南。
    四、过去将来时
  表示在过去预计将要发生的动作,常用于宾语从句。
  例:He wanted to know when the conference would start.  他想知道会议何时开始。
    五、现在进行时
  1、表示此时此刻(说话时)正在进行的动作。
  例:The teacher is talking with his students. 这位老师正在同他的学生交谈。
  2、表示现阶段正在进行的动作,但此刻并不一定在进行。
  例:I am attending a conference in Beijing. 我正在北京参加一个会议。
    六、过去进行时
  1、表示在过去某一段时间正在进行的动作。常需用表示过去的时间状语或通过上下文来判断时间。
  例:He was doing his homework from seven to nine last night.  昨天晚上七点到九点他正在做作业。
  2when while 的用法
  (1I fell and hurt myself while I _____tennis.
  A. was playing B. am playing C. play D. played
  (答案:A。连接词when 表示时间上的点,其所引导的句子用过去时,while 表示持续的一段时间,其所引导的句子用过去进行时。)(199843题)
  (2When you _____ this over with her, you should not see her any more.
  A. talk B. talked C. will talk D. talking  (答案为B)(199935题)
  (3One of the guards _____ when the general came in, which made him very angry.
  A. has slept B. were sleeping C, slept D. was sleeping  (答案为D)(199623题)
  3、过去进行时表示过去将来的动作。现在进行时可以表示将来的动作,同样,过去进行时也可以表示从过去某时间看将来要发生的动作。
  例:He went to see Xiao Li. He was leaving early the next morning.  他去看小李。他第二天一早就要离开此地了。
七、现在完成时
  1、表示动作刚刚结束(常和just, now, already, yet等词连用);或表示动作的结果(一般不用时间状语)。
  (1Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。(说明现在灯已经关上了)
  (2I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。(说明过去某时丢的,现在我还没有找到这支笔。)
  2、表示过去某时开始的动作一直延续到现在,并且可能会继续延续下去(常用since引导的短语或从句,或由for 引导的短语连用)。
  (1He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿已经三十年了。(现在还住在这儿)
  (2They’ve known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。(现在还继续来往)
  3、非延续性动词的完成时和it is +时间+since…..(过去时)
  英语中有些动词不能延续, 因此不能和表示延续的时间状语连用。
  (1He has _____ the army for ten years and is now an officer.
  A. gone into  B. joined in  C. been in  D. come into
(答案:C。用现在完成时表示继续的概念时,只能用含有持续意义的动词,不可用瞬间性动词。)(199549题)
  (2It is 3 years since I left Shanghai .我离开上海已经三年了。
  (如果是非延续动词,这时常用 it is +时间+since 的句型代替,从句用过去时态。)
  4havehasbeen to have hasgone to 的区别
  havehas been to:去过某地(表示某人的一种经历),可以和oncetwiceoftenneverever 连用。
  havehasgone to:去某地了(表示某人已经离开此地,在去某地的路途上或已在某地,所以一般来说此句型只用于第三人称),此句型不能与上述时间状语连用。
  (1He has gone to America.(意思为他已经去了美国,现在不在此地)
  (2He has been to America twice. 他去过美国两次。
  八、过去完成时
  1、表示在过去的某一时间或动作之前已经完成了的动作(即过去的过去)。这个过去的某一时间可用by, before等介词或连词引导的短语或一个从句来表示。
  例:About the sixth century A.D. when few Europeans could read, the Chinese _____ paper.
  A. invented  B. had invented  C. have invented  D. had been invented  (答案:B)(199735题)
  2、表示从过去某一时间开始,一直持续到另一个过去的时间的动作。
  例:The chemistry class _____ for five minutes when we hurried there.
  A. had been on  B. was on  C. has been on  D. would be on  (答案:A)(199524题)
  3、在含有before, after, as soon as 等连词引导的状语从句的复合句中,由于连词本身可以明确表示动作发生的先后顺序,因此,主句和从句都可以用一般过去时表示,而不用过去完成时。
  例:I called him as soon as I arrived.我刚一到就给他打电话。
  4、过去完成时常用在no sooner …than…, hardly/scarcely/barely…when…,一。句型之中,句子到装。
  (1No sooner had we sat down _____ we found it was time to go.
  A. than  B. when  C. as  D. while  (答案为A)(199750题)
  (2Scarcely had he opened the door when a gust of wind blew the candle out. 他刚打开门,蜡烛就被一阵风吹灭了。
九、将来完成时:表示在将来某一时间以前完成的动作。
  1By the time John gets home, his aunt _____.
  A. will have  B. leaves  C. will have left  D. is leaving  (答案:C)(199525题)
  2I _____ writing the article by the time you get back.
  A. shall finish  B. must have finished  C. have finished  D. shall have finished (答案:D) (200024题)
  十、现在完成进行时:表示从过去某时一直延续到现在的一个动作,这个动作一般会继续延续下去,或是到说话时结束, 但是强调到说话时为止一直在做的动作。
  例:I _____ on the door for ten minutes now without an answer.
  A. was knocking  B. am knocking  C. knocking  D. have been knocking(答案:D)(199849题)
第二节 被动语态
考试重点:感官动词和使役动词的被动语态;动词短语的被动语态;情态动词的被动语态;用主动表示被动的含义。
  一、感官动词及使役动词(如:seefeelhearwatchmakebid)在主动语态中用无to不定式做宾补,改为被动语态时要加to
  1The middle-aged man was seen _____ out of the house on the afternoon of the murder.
  A. came  B. come  C. to come  D. have come  (答案为C)(200058题)
  2We were made to study harder. 我们被要求努力学习。
  二、有些动词后面接一个介词或副词,构成短语。变被动语态时,短语动词做及物动词用。
  1The children are well looked after. 这些孩子得到了很好的照顾。
  2The doctor has been sent for. 已经派人去请大夫了。
  三、情态动词的被动语态
  构成:情态动词+be+过去分词。
  1The work must be finished before lunch. 这项工作必须在午饭前干完。
  2Nothing can be seen from here. 从这儿什么也看不见。
  四、用主动表示被动的含义
  常用:need/require +doing sth=to be done)(此句型主语大多为物)
  例:My room is a mess. It needs _____.
  A to be tidying up  B. tidying up  C. to tidy up  D. tidied up  (答案为B)(200047题)
第三节 情态动词    考试重点:情态动词+完成时
  情态动词用来表示能力、允许、许诺、可能、劝告、意愿等概念或态度。情态动词无人称变化,在句子中和动词原形一起构成谓语。根据这几年的考试看,着重测验情态动词接完成时的用法。
  一、must +现在完成时
  表示对已发生的事情的一种肯定的猜测。
  1Mr. Green _____ my letter, otherwise he would have replied before now.
  A. must have received  B. must have failed to receive  C. must receive  D. must fail to receive
  (答案:B)(199844题)
  2I believe he _____ an accident, otherwise he would have arrived on time.
  A. would have had  B. could have had  C. should have had  D. must have had
  (答案为D)(200158题)
  二、should ought to +完成时
  表示应该做的事情而没有做,否定式表示不该做的事情做了。含有对过去的动作的责备、批评。
  1They have done things they ought _____.
  A. not to do  B. not to be done  C. not to have done  D. not having done  (答案为C)(199959题)
  2I’m sorry I couldn’t get in touch with him before he left, I _____ him earlier.
  A. had a telephone  B. have phoned  C. should have phoned  D. should be phoned
  (答案为C)(200026题)
  三、could +完成时
  表示能做的事情而没有做。表示对过去能做而未做的事情感到惋惜,遗憾。
  1He could have joined us, but he didn’t get our invitation in time.
  他本来能够参加我们的,但是他没有收到我们的请贴。
  2I could have passed, but I did not study hard enough.  我本来能及格的,但是没有努力学习。
第四节 虚拟语气    如果所表示的条件根本不可能实现或实现的可能性很小时,称为虚拟条件句。
  考试重点:虚拟语气的基本形式和用法;if的省略形式;含蓄条件句;以wishthat)引导的表示愿望的宾语从句;would rather 引导的从句;以as if, as though 引导的从句;以suggest, advise, insist等词后引导的宾语从句;It is necessaryimportantthat引导的主语从句;It is time that句型中。
  一、虚拟语气的基本形式和用法:
  虚拟(条件)语气中,主句与从句中谓语动词的形式可分为下面三类:
1
I would ask George to lend us the money if I _____ him.
  A. had known  B. have known  C. knew  D. know
  (答案:C。与现在的事实相反,从句用过去时)(199538题)
  2Do you think there would be less conflict in the world if all people _____ the same language?
  A. spoke  B. speak  C. had spoken  D. will speak
  (答案:A。与现在的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去时。)
  3If Bob____ with us, he would have had a good time.
  A. would come  B. would have come  C. had come  D. came
  (答案为C。与过去的事实相反,从句的谓语动词用过去完成时。)(199559题)
二、if的省略形式
  在虚拟条件句中, 如谓语包含were , had, should等词, 则可以把这些词放到主语前面,省略if
  1_____ you were busy, I wouldn't have bothered you with my questions.
  A. If I realized  B. Had I realized  C. Did I have realized that  D. As I realized
(答案:B。虚拟条件句有时可以省略if,而将谓语中的过去式werehad,或should等移至主语之前。199639题)
  2_____, I should ask them some questions.
  A. Should they come to us  B. If they come to us  C. Were they come to us  D. Had they come to us
  (答案:A。与将来事实相反。)(199730题)

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