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吉林省学位外语考试复习资料大纲

时间:2019-02-13 21:09:19   作者:吉林学位外语   来源:自考学位外语考试   阅读:1492   评论:0
内容摘要:吉林省学位外语考试复习资料大纲

 七、现在完成时

  a. 现在完成时可表示过去发生的动作对现在所产生的影响,后面通常不用时间状语,但句中常出现already, just,yet等副词。如:

  Someone has broken the window.有人把窗户打破了。

  I’ve just finished reading the novel.我刚刚读完这本小说。

  Have you seen the doctor yet?你看过医生了吗?

  注:alreadyyet用法上的区别

  already常用于肯定句,置于句中。yet常用于否定句和疑问句,常用于句末。但already有时也可用语疑问句中暗示惊讶的心情。如:

  b. 现在完成时也可表示从过去某时开始的动作,状态一直持续到现在,常和for, since引导的时间状语连用。

  如: I have learned English for 5 years. He has lived in Beijing since he was born.

  注:

  (1) forsince引导的时间状语的区别: for + 一段时间, since + 一点时间从句(从句中常用一般过去时)

  (2)表示继续的现在完成时也可和lately, recently, so far, up to now, till now, in the past(last) few years……, this week (month, year……), all day, all this week等时间状语连用。

  如:Tom has had a toothache all day.I haven’t heard from him recently.

  (3)现在完成时也可表示从过去到现在曾经经历过或做过的事情,常和often, ever, never, before, once,…times等时间状语连用。如: .

  I’ve never been to Beijing.我从没去过北京。He has read this book before.

  难点释疑:

  1.点动词与延续性动词的区别 .

  所谓点动词是指含有终止或短暂意义的动词。如:begin, end, die, buy, borrow, come, arrive,

  join, marry等动词。它们通常不与表示一段时间的状语连用。如:

  I have bought a book.我买了一本书。 .

  I’ve had this book for three weeks.这本书我已经买了三星期了。

  2. have got的含义 .

  have got形式上是现在完成时,却和have是同一个意思

  She has got a slight temperature. She has a slight

  temperature.她有点发烧。

  3、用于现在完成时的句型

  It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

  It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

  This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

  八、过去完成时

  (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作以前完成了的动作,即过去的过去。可以用by,

  before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表示,也可以用一个表示过去的动作来表示,还可能通过上下文来表示。如:

  By nine o’clock last night, we had got 200 pictures from the spaceship.

  到昨晚9点钟,我们已经收到200张飞船发来的图片。

  (2)表示由过去的某一时刻开始,一直延续到过去另一时间的动作或状态,常和for, since构成的时间状语连用。例如:

  I had been at the bus stop for 20 minutes when a bus finally came.

  当车来的时候,我在车站已等了20分钟。

  He said he had worked in that factory since 1949.

  他说自从1949年以来他就在那家工厂工作。

  (3)叙述过去发生的事情,在已叙述了过去发生的事情后,反过来追述或补述以前发生的动作时,常使用过去完成时。例如:

  Mr. Smith died yesterday. He had been a good friend of mine.

  史密斯先生昨天去世了。他以前是我的好友。

  I didn’t know a thing about the verbs, for I had not studied my lesson.

  我对动词一无所知,因为我没有好好学习功课。

  (4)在含有定语从句的主从复合句中,如果叙述的是过去的事,先发生的动作常用过去完成时。例如:

  I returned the book that I had borrowed.我已归还了我借的书。

  She found the key that she had lost.她丢失的钥匙找到了。

  (5)过去完成时常常用在宾语从句(或间接引语)中,这时从句中的动作发生在主句表示的过去的动作之前。例如:.

  He said that he had known her well.他说他很熟悉她。

,   I thought I had sent the letter a week befo, re. 我认为我一星期前就把信寄出去了。

  (6)在包含有when, until等连词的复合句中,例如:

  When I woke up, it had already stopped raining.我醒来时雨已停了。

  She didn’t go to bed until she had finished he work.她直到把工作做完之后才睡觉。

  (7)动词think, want, hope, mean, plan,

  intend等用过去完成时来表示过去未曾实现的想法,希望,打算或意图等。例如:

  They had wanted to help but could not get there in time.

  他们本来打算去帮忙,但没有及时赶到那里。

  We had hoped to be able to come and see you .我们本来希望能来看看你。

  (8)过去完成时还可用在hardly…when…, no sooner…than…, It was the first (second,

  etc) time (that)…等固定句型中。例如: .

  Hardly had he began to speak when the audience interrupted him.他刚开始演讲,听众就打断了他。

  No sooner had he arrived than he went away again.他刚到就又走了。


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